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What is Vehicle Routing Problem? How to Solve VRP with Routing Software

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By Komal Puri | July 13, 2023

As businesses continue to expand, one of the most significant challenges they face is how to effectively manage their fleet of vehicles. Vehicle routing is a problem that has affected businesses for decades, and many solutions have been proposed over the years. However, despite the various solutions available, vehicle routing problems still affect businesses globally. In this post, we will delve into the topic of vehicle routing problems, explore the different types, the importance of solving them, and the various solutions available.

What is Vehicle Routing Problem?

Vehicle routing problem refers to a problem that involves the distribution of orders or goods from a central location or warehouse to a set of delivery locations using a fleet of vehicles. The goal is usually to minimize the total distance travelled by the fleet of vehicles and the time taken to complete all deliveries. Two significant factors that contribute to the problem include traffic patterns and optimization of routes.

Types and Variations of Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP)

A. Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP):

  1. Definition and Characteristics:
    1. In Capacitated VRP (CVRP), a fleet of vehicles with limited capacities is used to deliver goods or services to a set of customers.

    2. Each vehicle has a maximum capacity that cannot be exceeded, and each customer has a specific demand that needs to be fulfilled.

    3. The goal is to determine the most efficient routes for the vehicles to visit all the customers while respecting the capacity constraints.

    4. The objective is typically to minimize the total distance traveled, the number of vehicles used, or the total cost of the routes.

  2. Examples and Real-World Applications:
    1. Package Delivery: Companies like UPS and FedEx use CVRP to optimize the delivery of packages to various addresses while considering the vehicle capacities.

    2. Waste Collection: Waste management companies employ CVRP to plan optimal routes for garbage trucks to collect waste from multiple locations.

    3. Grocery Delivery: Online grocery delivery services, such as Instacart or Amazon Fresh, utilize CVRP to optimize the delivery routes for their drivers.

    4. Service Technicians: Companies with field service teams, such as appliance repair or maintenance, can apply CVRP to optimize the routes for service technicians.

    5. School Bus Routing: CVRP can be used in the transportation of students, where the objective is to determine efficient routes for school buses while considering the seating capacity.

    6. Petroleum Distribution: Oil companies use CVRP to optimize the delivery routes of fuel trucks to various gas stations, considering the limited capacity of each vehicle.

These are just a few examples of how Capacitated VRP is applied in real-world scenarios. The goal in all these cases is to minimize costs, improve efficiency, and ensure that customer demands are met while considering the capacity constraints of the vehicles.


B. Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW):

  1. Definition and Characteristics:
    1. In the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW), each customer has a specific time window during which they can be served or receive deliveries.

    2. The objective is to determine the optimal routes for a fleet of vehicles to visit all the customers within their respective time windows while minimizing the total distance or cost.

    3. Time windows represent the time constraints within which a customer can be serviced, and violating these constraints can result in penalties or additional costs.

    4. The problem involves finding routes that satisfy the time window constraints, vehicle capacities, and minimize the overall objective function.


  1. Examples and Real-World Applications:
    1. Courier and Delivery Services: Companies like DHL, FedEx, and Amazon Logistics use VRPTW to optimize their delivery routes, ensuring timely delivery within customer time windows.

    2. Public Transportation: Bus or shuttle services utilize VRPTW to optimize their routes, considering the time windows for passenger pickup and drop-off at various stops.

    3. Home Services: Companies offering services like plumbing, electrical repairs, or HVAC maintenance can use VRPTW to optimize the routes for service technicians while respecting customer appointment time windows.

    4. School Bus Routing: VRPTW can be applied in school transportation to optimize bus routes, considering the time windows for student pickups and drop-offs.

    5. Mobile Healthcare Services: Organizations providing mobile healthcare, such as home healthcare or medical diagnostics, can utilize VRPTW to optimize routes for medical professionals, respecting patient appointment time windows.

    6. Food Delivery: Online food delivery platforms like Uber Eats or DoorDash can employ VRPTW to optimize delivery routes within specified time windows.

These are some examples where the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows is applicable. The objective is to ensure that customers or passengers are serviced within their desired time frames, while optimizing the overall efficiency and minimizing costs or penalties associated with violating time window constraints.

C. Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery (VRPPD):

  1. Definition and Characteristics:
    1. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery (VRPPD) involves optimizing routes for a fleet of vehicles that need to pick up goods or resources from pickup locations and deliver them to corresponding delivery locations.

    2. Each pickup location has specific demands, and the vehicles must ensure that the pickups and deliveries are completed efficiently while respecting capacity constraints.

    3. The objective is to minimize the total distance traveled, the number of vehicles used, or the overall cost while satisfying pickup and delivery requirements and vehicle capacity limitations.

  2. Examples and Real-World Applications:
    1. Courier and Logistics: Companies engaged in courier services or logistics use VRPPD to optimize the routes for pickup from warehouses or suppliers and subsequent delivery to customers.

    2. Retail Distribution: Retailers with multiple stores or warehouses employ VRPPD to optimize the routes for picking up inventory from distribution centers and delivering to individual retail locations.

    3. Waste Collection and Recycling: VRPPD can be used in waste management operations, where trucks need to pick up waste from different locations and deliver it to recycling centers or disposal sites.

    4. Reverse Logistics: VRPPD is applicable in reverse logistics scenarios, such as product returns, where vehicles need to pick up returned items from customers and deliver them back to warehouses or processing centers.

    5. Home Delivery of Appliances/Furniture: Companies delivering large appliances or furniture often face the challenge of pickup from warehouses and subsequent delivery to customers' homes, which can be optimized using VRPPD.

    6. Hospital or Healthcare Supply Distribution: VRPPD can be utilized to optimize routes for medical supply distribution, including the pickup of medical equipment or pharmaceuticals from suppliers and delivery to hospitals or healthcare facilities.

These are some examples where the Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery is relevant. VRPPD helps streamline pickup and delivery operations by optimizing routes, reducing transportation costs, and ensuring efficient use of resources while meeting the demands of both pickups and deliveries.


Other Variations of VRP:

  1. Split Delivery VRP:
    • In Split Delivery VRP, the capacity of a single vehicle is not sufficient to fulfill the demand of a customer entirely.

    • The problem is to determine how to split the delivery of goods for a customer across multiple vehicles or visits, while minimizing costs and satisfying constraints.

    • This variation is commonly encountered in scenarios where the customer's demand exceeds the vehicle's capacity.

  2. Open VRP:
    • In Open VRP, vehicles are not required to return to the depot after serving the customers.

    • The vehicles can end their routes at any customer location, and the objective is to find the most efficient set of routes that minimize the total distance or cost while fulfilling the demands of all customers.

    • Open VRP allows for more flexibility in vehicle routes and is often suitable for scenarios where vehicles can end their routes at locations that serve as potential depots for subsequent trips.

  3. Multi-Depot VRP:
    • In Multi-Depot VRP, there are multiple depots from which vehicles start their routes and return to their respective depots.

    • The problem involves determining the optimal routes for the vehicles to visit customers, considering the capacity constraints, while minimizing the total distance or cost.

    • This variation is particularly applicable in scenarios where multiple depots or distribution centers are available to serve different regions or areas.

  4. Dynamic VRP:
    • Dynamic VRP deals with VRP scenarios where new customer requests or changes in existing requests occur during the execution of routes.

    • The problem requires adapting the existing routes or generating new routes in real-time to accommodate dynamic changes while minimizing additional costs or disruptions.

    • Dynamic VRP is suitable for situations where customer demands or requirements are subject to frequent changes, such as on-demand delivery services or emergency response operations.

Challenges and Future Trends in Vehicle Routing Problem

A. Scalability and Complexity Issues:

  • One of the challenges in VRP is dealing with large-scale problem instances with a high number of customers and vehicles, which can result in computational complexity.

  • Future trends involve developing more scalable algorithms and optimization techniques to handle large-scale VRP instances efficiently.

  • This includes the development of parallel and distributed computing approaches, as well as metaheuristic algorithms that can handle complex VRP variants.

B. Incorporating Real-Time Data and Dynamic Factors:

  • Traditional VRP models often assume static and deterministic conditions, but in reality, the environment is dynamic, with changing customer demands, traffic conditions, and disruptions.

  • Future trends involve incorporating real-time data, such as GPS data, traffic information, and weather conditions, into VRP algorithms to improve route planning and adaptability in response to dynamic factors.

  • Dynamic VRP models and algorithms that can handle real-time updates and dynamic changes in customer demands or vehicle availability are being explored.

C. Integration with Emerging Technologies (e.g., IoT, AI):

  • Integration of VRP with emerging technologies holds significant potential for enhancing route optimization and decision-making.

  • Internet of Things (IoT) can provide real-time data on vehicle status, environmental conditions, and customer demands, enabling more accurate and adaptive routing.

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, such as machine learning and deep learning, can be utilized to improve VRP algorithms, learn from historical data, and make intelligent decisions in route planning and vehicle assignment.

D. Sustainability and Green Routing Strategies:

  • With increasing environmental concerns, there is a growing emphasis on incorporating sustainability into VRP solutions.

  • Green routing strategies aim to minimize environmental impact by optimizing routes to reduce fuel consumption, emissions, and traffic congestion.

  • Future trends involve developing VRP models and algorithms that consider factors like vehicle fuel efficiency, alternative fuel options, vehicle sharing, and incorporating green infrastructure in route planning.

Real-World Applications of VRP

Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) has numerous real-world applications across various industries. Here are some common examples:

  1. Transportation and Logistics: VRP plays a crucial role in optimizing the delivery routes for logistics and transportation companies. It helps in planning efficient routes for delivering goods to customers, minimizing travel distances, and maximizing resource utilization.

  2. E-commerce and Online Retail: VRP is extensively used by e-commerce companies to optimize their last-mile delivery operations. It helps in planning routes for delivering packages to customers' doorsteps while considering factors like vehicle capacity, time windows, and customer preferences.

  3. Waste Management: VRP is applied in waste management to optimize the collection and disposal routes for garbage trucks. It helps in reducing travel distances, improving efficiency, and minimizing the environmental impact of waste collection operations.

  4. Public Transportation: VRP is used in public transportation systems, such as bus or shuttle services. It helps in determining optimal routes and schedules for picking up and dropping off passengers at different stops, considering factors like passenger demand and time windows.

  5. Field Service Management: Companies providing field services, such as maintenance, repairs, or installations, use VRP to optimize the routes for service technicians. It helps in efficiently scheduling and dispatching technicians to customer locations, minimizing travel time and improving service quality.

  6. Healthcare Services: VRP is utilized in healthcare services to optimize routes for medical supply distribution, home healthcare visits, and medical sample collections. It ensures timely and efficient delivery of healthcare resources and services to patients.

  7. School Bus Routing: VRP is applied in planning school bus routes, considering factors like student pickup and drop-off points, time windows, and bus capacities. It helps in optimizing routes to ensure efficient and safe transportation for students.

  8. Food Delivery: VRP is extensively used by food delivery platforms to optimize the delivery routes for their drivers. It considers factors like order locations, delivery time windows, and driver capacities to ensure timely and efficient food delivery.

Why Solve Vehicle Routing Problem?

There are several reasons why solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is essential:

  1. Cost Reduction: Optimizing vehicle routes through VRP can lead to significant cost savings. By finding the most efficient routes, companies can minimize fuel consumption, reduce vehicle wear and tear, and lower labor costs associated with transportation. This can result in improved profitability and competitiveness.

  2. Resource Optimization: VRP allows for better utilization of resources such as vehicles, drivers, and time. By optimizing routes, companies can ensure that their resources are efficiently allocated, reducing idle time and maximizing productivity. This leads to improved operational efficiency and resource management.

  3. Improved Customer Service: Efficient vehicle routing leads to timely deliveries or services, resulting in enhanced customer satisfaction. By optimizing routes, companies can meet customer demands promptly, ensure on-time deliveries, and minimize waiting times. This can help build customer loyalty and strengthen business relationships.

  4. Reduced Environmental Impact: VRP can contribute to sustainability efforts by promoting eco-friendly practices. Optimizing routes can reduce fuel consumption, vehicle emissions, and traffic congestion. By adopting green routing strategies, such as minimizing travel distances and using alternative fuel options, companies can mitigate their environmental footprint.

  5. Complex Problem Solving: VRP presents a challenging combinatorial optimization problem that requires advanced algorithms and techniques to find optimal solutions. Solving VRP helps in advancing optimization research and developing innovative approaches to tackle complex logistical and transportation challenges.

  6. Operational Efficiency: VRP optimization improves overall operational efficiency by streamlining the planning and execution of vehicle routes. It reduces manual effort and the likelihood of errors, providing a more systematic and automated approach to route planning.

  7. Scalability and Growth: As businesses expand, the complexity of managing vehicle routes increases. Solving VRP enables companies to scale their operations effectively by optimizing routes for an expanding fleet of vehicles and customer base.

Different Ways to Solve Vehicle Routing Problem

There are several approaches and algorithms to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), depending on the problem characteristics and constraints. Here are some common methods used to solve VRP:

  1. Exact Methods:
    • Integer Programming: Formulating VRP as an integer programming problem and solving it using optimization solvers can provide optimal solutions.

    • Branch and Bound: This method systematically explores the solution space by branching on decisions and bounding the search, aiming to find the optimal solution.

    • Dynamic Programming: In certain VRP variants, dynamic programming techniques can be used to solve smaller subproblems and build up to an optimal solution.

  2. Heuristic Methods:
    • Clarke and Wright Savings Algorithm: This greedy heuristic starts with initial routes and iteratively combines and improves them based on the savings achieved by merging routes.

    • Nearest Neighbor: This simple heuristic selects the nearest unvisited customer for each vehicle until all customers are served, resulting in a suboptimal solution.

    • Sweep Algorithm: It starts with a depot and sweeps in a circular manner, adding customers to the route until a capacity limit is reached, and then repeats for remaining customers.

  3. Metaheuristic Methods:
    • Genetic Algorithms: These evolutionary algorithms mimic natural selection to evolve a population of solutions through selection, crossover, and mutation operations.

    • Ant Colony Optimization: Inspired by the behavior of ants, this algorithm uses pheromone trails to guide the search for better routes, promoting exploration and exploitation.

    • Simulated Annealing: This stochastic optimization algorithm uses a temperature parameter to accept suboptimal solutions initially and gradually reduces the temperature to converge towards an optimal solution.

  4. Hybrid Methods:
    • Combination of different algorithms: Hybrid approaches combine multiple solution methods, such as combining exact methods with heuristics or metaheuristics, to benefit from their respective strengths.

    • Local Search with Improvement Operators: Local search algorithms iteratively improve a given solution by making small modifications while preserving feasibility.

How to Solve Vehicle Routing Problem with Fareye Routing Software?

Fareye Routing software is a specialized solution designed to address the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and optimize route planning and execution. To solve VRP using Fareye Routing software, you can follow these general steps:

  1. Data Preparation:
    • Gather and input relevant data into the software, including customer locations, delivery/pickup time windows, vehicle information (capacities, speeds), and any additional constraints or preferences.

  2. Define Problem Constraints:
    • Specify the constraints and objectives of the VRP, such as vehicle capacities, time windows, maximum travel distances, or the number of vehicles available.

  3. Configure Routing Parameters:
    • Set up parameters in the Fareye Routing software, such as routing strategy, priority rules, optimization objectives (minimize distance, minimize time, etc.), and any specific requirements unique to your business.

  4. Generate Routes:
    • Run the routing algorithm in the Fareye Routing software to generate optimized routes for your vehicles based on the provided data and constraints.

    • The software will consider factors like vehicle capacities, time windows, and optimization objectives to create efficient routes that fulfill customer demands.

  5. Review and Fine-tune:
    • Review the generated routes in the Fareye Routing software to ensure they meet your business requirements and constraints.

    • Fine-tune the routes if necessary, such as adjusting the sequence of stops, reallocating orders between vehicles, or modifying time windows.

  6. Dispatch and Monitor:
    • Once satisfied with the generated routes, use the Fareye Routing software to dispatch the optimized routes to your drivers or vehicles.

    • Monitor the execution of routes in real-time, track vehicle locations, and handle any unexpected changes or disruptions that may occur.

  7. Analyze and Optimize:
    • Continuously analyze and evaluate the performance of the routes using the reporting and analytics features of the Fareye Routing software.

    • Identify areas for improvement, such as reducing travel distances, enhancing resource utilization, or minimizing delays, and iterate on the routing process to further optimize results.

Komal puri

Komal Puri is a seasoned professional in the logistics and supply chain industry. As the AVP of Marketing and a subject matter expert at FarEye, she has been instrumental in shaping the industry narrative for the past decade. Her expertise and insights have earned her numerous awards and recognition. Komal’s writings reflect her deep understanding of the industry, offering valuable insights and thought leadership.

Komal Puri
Sr. Director of Marketing | FarEye

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